Motivation: Biological, Psychological, and Environmental
Allyn & Bacon, 2010 - 410 pages
Preface Part I: Introduction and History 1 Introduction to Motivation and Emotion Meaning of Motivation To be Moved into Action Knowledge, Competence, and Motivation Determinism versus Free Will and Free Act Section Recap Sources of Motivation Internal Sources Linking Biological and Psychological Variables External Sources The Past as a Source of Motivation Combined Internal and External Sources Motivate Behavior Motivation Sequence Emotions Section Recap Study of Motivation and Emotion Research in Motivation Research in Emotion Sources and Scope of Motivation Section Recap Activities 2 The History of Motivation and Emotion Brief History of Motivation Aristotle's Theory Hedonism Evolution and Motivation Unconscious Motivation Internal Sources of Motivation Commonality among Instincts, Drives, and Needs External Sources of Motivation External and Internal Sources Induce Behavior Section Recap Brief History of Emotion Emotion as Subjective Feeling Basic Emotions Emotion as Motive for Action and Thought Accompaniments of Emotion Section Recap Activities Part II: Biological Properties of Motivation 3 Evolutionary Antecedents of Motivation Evolution of Universal Motives Evolutionary History and Personal History Evolutionary Psychology Section Recap Universal Motives of Sex, Fear, Food, and Music Selecting a Mate Maintaining Relationships Biosocial Theory Fear as a Universal Motive Liking and Preferences for Foods Universal Appeal of Music Section Recap Activities 4 Addictions and Addictive Behaviors Drugs of Abuse and Addiction Psychoactive Drugs Extent of Drug Use Characteristics of Addiction Initiation into Drug Use Section Recap Theories of Drug Addiction Discovery of Pleasure Centers in the Brain Pleasure Emerges from the Brain Psychological Theories Conditioning Theories Events That Lead to Drug Relapse Drug-Use Reinforcement Cognition and Addiction Section Recap Behavioral Addictions Exercise Addiction and Drug Addiction Endorphins and Exercise-Induced Euphoria Gambling Addiction Section Recap Activities 5 Homeostasis: Temperature, Thirst, Hunger, and Eating Internal Factors of Body Regulation Homeostasis Negative Feedback System Effects of Deviation from Set Point Thermoregulation Thirst and Drinking The Body's Energy Requirements Short- and Long-Term Energy Regulation Hunger Sensations Feedback Mechanisms for Satiety Section Recap Food Characteristics and Eating Cephalic Responses Palatability and Amount of Food Sensory-Specific Satiety Food Preferences Section Recap Person Characteristics and Eating Boundary Model of Eating Cognitive Release of Diet Restraint Stress-Induced Eating Hunger Boundary Section Recap Activities 6 Behavior, Arousal and Affective Valence Arousal and Performance An Analogy for Arousal Categories of Arousal Sources of Arousal Arousal and Behavior Section Recap Theories about the Performance-Arousal Relationship Hull-Spence Drive Theory Cusp Catastrophe Model Cue Utilization Hypothesis Processing Efficiency Theory Section Recap Arousal and Affective Valence Variation in Affective Valence Stimulus Complexity and Affective Valence Incongruity Resolution in Music, Humor and Suspense Music Incongruity Resolution and Humor Resolution of Suspense Section Recap Activities 7 Stress, Coping, and Health Relationship between Life Events and Stress Demands, Strain, Coping, and Stress Characteristics of Stress Characteristics of Stressors Stressor-Stress Relationship Section Recap Bodily Effects of Stress Physiological Effects of Stressors Stressors and Psychophysiological Disorders Stressors and the Immune System Section Recap Variables Moderating the Impact of Life Events Appraisal of Life Events Coping and Behavior Social Support as a Moderator Personality Differences as Moderator Variables Section Recap Activities Part III: Psychological Properties of Motivation 8 Drives, Needs, and Awareness Drives and Needs as Internal Sources of Motivation Interaction of Push and Pull Motivation Physiological Needs and Psychological Drives Characteristics of Psychological Needs Maslow's Theory of Needs Section Recap Some Important Psychological Needs Achievement Motivation Factors that Affect Achievement Motivation An Achievement Goal Framework Need for Power Need for Cognition Self-Esteem, Relatedness, Autonomy, and Competence Need for Affiliation and Intimacy Self-Determination Theory Section Recap Motivation without Awareness Reflexology Auto-Motive Hypothesis Section Recap Activities 9 Personality and Self in Motivation Personality Associated with Motivation Temperament, Personality, and Behavior Personality Traits as Categories or Causes of Behavior Personality Traits for Motivation Biological Reality of Traits Section Recap Personality Traits Affect Motivation Personality and Environment Effects of Extraversion on Motivation Effects of Neuroticism on Motivation Effects of Conscientiousness on Motivation Effects of Agreeableness on Motivation Effects of Multiple Traits on Motivation Happiness and the Big Five Personality Traits Effects of Sensation Seeking on Motivation Section Recap Self as a Motivational System Self-Concept Self-Esteem Section Recap Activities Part IV: External Sources of Motivation 10 Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation and Incentive Value Reinforcers and Punishers versus Incentives Objective and Subjective Incentive Value Incentives as Losses and Gains Section Recap Factors That Affect Incentive Value Amount Choice between Simultaneous Reinforcers Contrast Effects Temporal Motivation Theory Section Recap Intrinsic Motivation Differences between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Purpose of Intrinsically Motivated Behavior Interaction between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivational Orientations Section Recap Activities 11 Goal Motivation Origins of Goals Incentives versus Goals Sources of Goals Section Recap Goal Characteristics and Expectations Characteristics of Goals Expected Utility Theory Framing Prospect Theory Section Recap Goal Commitment and Goal Achievement Committing to a Goal Achievement Behaviors Goal Achievement and Goal Failure Section Recap Activities 12 Economics of Motivation Motivation Costs and Resources Cost of Motivated.
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